The Virtues of a Godly Life.
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Pride
Pride is the Excessive Love of one's own excellence, for which Satan was Damned. It is ordinarily accounted one of the Seven Vices (Capital Sins).  Saint Thomas, however, endorsing the appreciation of Saint Gregory, considers it the Queen of all Vices, and puts Vainglory in its place as one of the Deadly Sins. In giving it this pre-eminence he takes it in a most formal and complete signification. He understands it to be that frame of Mind in which a Man, through the Love of his own worth, aims to withdraw himself from Subjection to Almighty God, and sets at naught the Commands of Superiors.

It is a Species of Contempt of God and of those who bear His Commission. Regarded in this way, it is of course a Mortal Sin of a Most Heinous sort. Indeed Saint Thomas rates it in this sense as one of the Blackest of Sins. By it the Creature refuses to stay within his Essential Orbit; he turns his back upon God, not through Weakness or Ignorance, but solely because in his Self-Exaltation he is minded not to submit. His attitude has something Satanic in it, and is probably not-often verified in Human Beings.

A less Atrocious kind of Pride is that which Impels one to make much of oneself Unduly and without Sufficient Warrant, without however any disposition to cast off the Dominion of the Creator. This may happen, according to Saint Gregory, either:

 because a man regards himself as the source of such advantages as he may discern in himself,
 or because, whilst admitted that God has bestowed them, he reputes this to have been in response to his own Merits,
 or because he attributes to himself Gifts which he has not;
 or, finally, because even when these are real, he unreasonably looks to be put-ahead of others.

Supposing the conviction indicated in the First Two Instances to be seriously entertained, the Sin would be a Grievous One and would have the added Guilt of Heresy. Ordinarily, however, this Erroneous Persuasion does not exist; it is the Demeanor that is Reprehensible. The Last Two cases, generally speaking, are not held to constitute Grave Offences. This is not true, however, whenever a Man's Arrogance is the occasion of Great Harm to another, as, for instance, his undertaking the Duties of a Physician without the Requisite Knowledge. The same Judgment is to be Rendered when Pride has given rise to such Temper of Soul that in the pursuit of its Object, one is ready of anything, even Mortal Sin.

Vainglory, Ambition, and Presumption are commonly enumerated as the Offspring Vices of Pride, because they are well-adapted to serve its Inordinate Aims. Of themselves, they are Venial Sins unless some Extraneous Consideration puts them in the ranks of Grievous Transgressions. It should be noted that Presumption does not here stand for the Sin against Hope. It means the Desire to Essay what exceeds one's Capacity.

Avarice
Avarice (from Latin avarus, "greedy"; "to crave") is the Inordinate Love for Riches. Its special Malice, broadly speaking, lies in that it makes the getting and keeping of money, possessions, and the like, a Purpose in-itself to live for. It does not see that these things are valuable only as Instruments for the conduct of a Rational and Harmonious life, due regard being paid of course to the special Social Condition in which one is placed. It is called a Capital Vice because it has as its Object that for the gaining or holding of which, many other Sins are Committed. It is more to be Dreaded, in that it often Cloaks itself as a Virtue, or Insinuates itself under the Pretext of making a Decent Provision for the future. In so far as Avarice is an Incentive to Injustice in acquiring and retaining of wealth, it is frequently a Grievous Sin. In itself, however, and in so far as it implies simply an excessive desire of, or pleasure in, riches, it is commonly not a Mortal Sin.

Envy/Jealousy
Jealousy is here taken to be Synonymous with Envy. It is defined to be a Sorrow which one entertains at another's well-being, because of a view that one's own excellence is in consequence lessened. Its distinctive Malice comes from the opposition it implies to the Supreme Virtue of Charity. The Law of Love constrains us to 'Rejoice', rather than to be Distressed at the Good Fortune of our Neighbor. Besides, such an Attitude is a Direct Contradiction of the Spirit of Solidarity which ought to characterize the Human Race and, especially, the Members of the Christian Community. The Envious Man Tortures himself without cause, Morbidly holding as he does, the Success of another to Constitute an Evil for himself. The Sin, in so far as it defies the Great Precept of Charity, is in general Grievous, although on account of the Trifling Matter involved, as well as because of the Lack of Deliberation, it is often reputed to be Venial. Jealousy is most Evil when one repines at another's Spiritual Good. It is then said to be a Sin against the Holy Ghost. It is likewise called a Capital Sin because of the other Vices it begets. Among its Progeny Saint Thomas (II-II:36) Enumerates Hatred, Detraction, Rejoicing over the Misfortunes of one's Fellow, and Whispering. Regret at another's success is not always Jealousy. The Motive has to be Scrutinized. If, for instance, I feel Sorrow at the news of another's Promotion or Rise to Wealth, either because I know that he does not deserve his Accession of Good Fortune, or because I have founded Reason to Fear he will use it to Injure me or others, my attitude, provided that there is no excess in my Sentiment, is entirely Rational. Then, too, it may happen that I do not, properly speaking, Begrudge my Neighbor his Happier Condition, but simply am Grieved that I have not imitated him. Thus if the subject-matter be praiseworthy, I shall be not Jealous but rather Laudably Emulous.

Anger/Wrath
The Desire of Vengeance. Its Ethical Rating depends upon the Quality of the Vengeance and the Quantity of the Passion.  When these are in-conformity-with the Prescriptions of Balanced Reason, Anger is not a Sin. It is rather a Praiseworthy Thing and Justifiable with a Proper Zeal. It becomes Sinful when it is sought to wreak Vengeance upon one who has not Deserved it, or to a greater-extent than it has been Deserved, or in Conflict-with the Dispositions of Law, or from an Improper Motive. The Sin is then in a general sense Mortal as being opposed to Justice and Charity. It may, however, be Venial because the Punishment aimed at is but a Trifling one or because of Lack of Full Deliberation. Likewise, Anger is Sinful when there is an Undue Vehemence in the Passion itself, whether inwardly or outwardly. Ordinarily it is then accounted a Venial Sin unless the excess be so great as to go counter seriously to the Love of God or of one's Neighbor.

Lust
The Inordinate Craving for, or Indulgence of, the Carnal Pleasure which is experienced in the Human Organs of Generation.

The Wrongfulness of Lust is reducible to this: that Venereal Satisfaction is sought for either outside Wedlock or, at any rate, in a manner which is contrary to the Laws that govern Marital Intercourse. Every such Criminal Indulgence is a Mortal Sin, provided of course, it be Voluntary in itself and Fully Deliberate. This is the Testimony of Saint Paul in the Epistle to the Galations 5:19:

"Now the Works of the Flesh are manifest, which are Fornication, Uncleanness, Immodesty, Luxury, . . . Of the which I foretell you, as I have foretold to you, that they who do such things shall not obtain the Kingdom of God".

Moreover, if it be true the Gravity of the Offences may be measured by the Harm they work to the Individual or the Community, there can be no doubt that Lust has in this respect a Gravity all its own. Transgressions against the Virtues other than Purity frequently admit of a Minor Degree of Malice, and are accounted Venial. Impurity has the Evil Distinction that, whenever there is a direct Conscious Surrender to any of its Phases the Guilt incurred is always Grievous. This Judgment, however, needs modifying when there is question of some Impure Gratification for which a Person is responsible, not immediately, but because he had Posited its Cause, and to which he has not Deliberately Consented. The Act may then be only Venially Sinful. For the Determination of the amount of its Wickedness much will depend upon the Apprehended Proximate Danger of giving way on the part of the Agent, as well as upon the known Capacity of the thing done to bring about Venereal Pleasure. This Teaching applies to External and Internal Sins alike: "Whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed Adultery with her in his Heart" (Matthew 5:28). However the case may stand as to the Extent of the Obligation under which one lies to refrain in certain circumstances from Actions whose net result is to excite the Passions, Moralists are at One as to the Counsel they give. They all emphasize the Perils of the situation, and point out the practical Dangers of a Failure to Refrain. It matters not that there is not, as we suppose, an initial Sinful Intent. The sheerest Prudence and most rudimentary Self-Knowledge alike demand Abstinence, where possible, from things which, though not Grievously Bad in themselves, yet easily fan-into-flame the Unholy Fire which may be smoldering, but it is not extinct.

Lust is said to be a Capital Sin. The reason is obvious. The Pleasure which this Vice has as its Object is at once so Attractive and Connatural to Human Nature as to whet-keenly a Man's Desire, and so lead him into the Commission of many other Disorders in the pursuit of it. Theologians ordinarily distinguish various forms of Lust in so far as it is a Consummated External Sin, e.g., Fornication, Adultery, Incest, Criminal Assault, Abduction, and Sodomy. Each of these has its own specific Malice -- a fact to borne in mind for purposes of Safeguarding the Integrity of Sacramental Confession.


Gluttony
(From Latin Gluttire, to swallow, to gulp-down), the Excessive Indulgence in Food and Drink. The Moral Deformity discernible in this Vice lies in its Defiance of the Order Postulated by Reason, which prescribes 'Necessity' as the Measure of Indulgence in Eating and Drinking. This De-ordination, according to the teaching of the Angelic Doctor, may happen in Five (5) Ways which are set forth in the Scholastic Verse: "Prae-propere, laute, nimis, ardenter, studiose" or, according to the Apt Rendering of Father Joseph Rickaby: Too soon, Too expensively, Too much, Too eagerly, Too daintily. Clearly one who uses Food or Drink in such a way as to Injure his Health or Impair the Mental Equipment needed for the Discharge of his Duties, is Guilty of the Sin of Gluttony. It is Incontrovertible that to Eat or Drink for the mere Pleasure of the Experience, and for that exclusively, is likewise to Commit the Sin of Gluttony. Such a Temper of Soul is equivalently the Direct and Positive Shutting Out of that Reference to our Last End which must be found, at least Implicitly, in all our Actions. At the same time it must be noted that there is no obligation to Formerly and Explicitly have before one's Mind a Motive which will immediately relate our Actions to God. It is enough that such an Intention should be Implied in the apprehension of the thing as Lawful with a consequent Virtual Submission to Almighty God. Gluttony is in general a Venial Sin in so far forth as it is an Undue Indulgence in a Thing which is in itself neither Good nor Bad. Of course it is obvious that a different estimate would have to be given of one so wedded to the Pleasures of the Table as to Absolutely and Without Qualification live merely to eat and drink, so minded as to be of the number of those, described by the Apostle Saint Paul, "whose god is their belly" (Philippians 3:19). Such a one would be Guilty of Mortal Sin. Likewise a person who, by Excesses in Eating and Drinking, would have greatly impaired his health, or unfitted himself for duties for the performance of which he has a Grave Obligation, would be justly chargeable with Mortal Sin. Saint John of the Cross, in his work "The Dark Night of the Soul" (I, vi), dissects what he calls Spiritual Gluttony. He explains that it is the Disposition of those who, in Prayer and other Acts of Religion, are always in-search-of Sensible Sweetness; they are those who "will feel and taste God, as if He were palpable and accessible to them not only in Communition, but in all their other Acts of Devotion". This he declares is a Very Great Imperfection and Productive of Great Evils.

Sloth/Idleness
In general it means Disinclination to Labor or Exertion. As a Capital or Deadly Vice Saint Thomas (II-II:35) calls it Sadness in the face of some Spiritual Good which one has to achieve (Tristitia de bono spirituali). Father Rickaby aptly translates its Latin Equivalent Acedia (Greek Akedia) by saying that it means the Don't-Care Feeling. A Man apprehends the Practice of Virtue to be beset with Difficulties and Chafes under the Restraints imposed by the Service of God. The Narrow Way stretches Wearily before him and his Soul grows Sluggish and Torpid at the thought of the Painful Life Journey. The idea of Right Living inspires not Joy but Disgust, because of its Laboriousness. This is the notion commonly obtaining, and in this sense Sloth is not a specific Vice according to the Teaching of Saint Thomas, but rather a Circumstance of all Vices. Ordinarily it will not have the Malice of Mortal Sin unless, of course, we conceive it to be so utter that because of it one is willing to bid Defiance to some Serious Obligation. Saint Thomas completes his definition of Sloth by saying that it is Torpor in the presence of Spiritual Good which is Divine Good. In other words, a Man is then formally Distressed at the prospect of what he must do for God to Bring-About or Keep-Intact his Friendship with God. In this sense Sloth is directly opposed to Charity. It is then a Mortal Sin unless the Act be lacking in Entire Advertence or Full Consent of the Will. The Trouble attached to maintenance of the inhabiting of God by Charity arouses Tedium in such a Person. He Violates, therefore, expressly the First and the Greatest of the Commandments: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind, and with thy whole strength" (Mark 12:30).


The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged.

Those who recite the Divine Office find constantly recurring what seems to be the earliest instance of the word cardinal as applied to the virtues. St. Ambrose, while trying to identify the eight Beatitudes recorded by St. Matthew with the four recorded by St. Luke, makes use of the expression: "Hic quattuor velut virtutes amplexus est cardinales". A little later we find cardinal employed in like manner by St. Augustine (Common of Many Martyrs, third nocturn, second series; also Migne, P.L., XV, 1653; St. Thomas, Summa Theol., I-II.79.1 ad 1). That St. Jerome also uses the term is a statement which rests on a treatise not written by him, but published among his works; it is to be found in Migne, P.L., XXX, 596.

The term cardo means a hinge, that on which a thing turns, its principal point; and from this St. Thomas derives the various significations of the virtues as cardinal, whether in the generic sense, inasmuch as they are the common qualities of all other moral virtues, or in the specific sense, inasmuch as each has a distinct formal object determining its nature. Every moral virtue fulfils the conditions of being well judged, subserving the common good, being restrained within measure, and having firmness; and these four conditions also yield four distinct virtues.

The fourfold system
The origin of the fourfold system is traceable to Greek philosophy; other sources are earlier, but the Socratic source is most definite. Among the reporters of Socrates, Xenophon is vague on the point; Plato in "The Republic" puts together in a system the four virtues adopted later, with modifications by St. Thomas. (In "The Laws", Bk. I, 631, Plato recurs to his division: "Wisdom is the chief and leader: next follows temperance; and from the union of these two with courage springs justice. These four virtues take precedence in the class of divine goods".) Wishing to say what justice is, the Socratic Plato looked for it in the city-state, where he discovered four classes of men. Lowest was the producing class—the husbandmen and the craftsmen; they were the providers for the bodily needs, for the carnal appetites, which require the restraint of temperance (sophrosúne). Next came the police or soldier class, whose needful virtue was fortitude (’andreía). In this pair of cardinal virtues is exhibited a not very precise portion of Greek psychology, which the Scholastics have perpetuated in the division of appetites as concupiscible and irascible, the latter member having for its characteristic that it must seek its purpose by an arduous endeavour against obstacles. This is a Scholastic modification of tò ’epithumetikòn and tó thumoeidés, neither of which are rational faculties, while they are both amenable to reason (metà lògou); and it is the latter of them especially which is to help the reason, as leading faculty (tò ‘egemonikón), to subdue the concupiscence of the former. This idea of leadership gives us the third cardinal virtue, called by Plato sophía and philosophía, but by Aristotle phrónesis, the practical wisdom which is distinguished from the speculative. The fourth cardinal virtue stands outside the scheme of the other three, which exhaust the psychological trichotomy of man; tò ’epiphumetikón, tò thumoeidés, tò logikón. The Platonic justice of the "Republic", at least in this connexion, is the harmony between these three departments, in which each faculty discharges exactly its own proper function without interfering in the functions of the others. Obviously the senses may disturb reason; not so obviously, yet clearly, reason may disturb sense, if man tries to regulate his virtues on the principles proper to an angel without bodily appetites. In this idea of justice, viz., as concordant working of parts within the individual's own nature, the Platonic notion differs from the Scholastic, which is that justice is strictly not towards self, but towards others. Aristotle, with variations of his own, describes the four virtues which Plato had sketched; but in his "Ethics" he does not put them into one system. They are treated in his general discussion, which does not aim at a complete classification of virtues, and leaves interpreters free to give different enumerations.

The Latins, as represented by Cicero, repeated Plato and Aristotle: "Each man should so conduct himself that fortitude appear in labours and dangers: temperance in foregoing pleasures: prudence in the choice between good and evil: justice in giving every man his own [in suo cuique tribuendo]" (De Fin., V, xxiii, 67; cf. De Offic., I, ii, 5). This is a departure from the idea prominent in Platonic justice, and agrees with the Scholastic definition. It is a clearly admitted fact that in the inspiration of Holy Scripture the ministerial author may use means supplied by human wisdom. The Book of Wisdom is clearly under Hellenic influence: hence one may suppose the repetition of the four Platonic virtues to be connected with their purpose. In Wis., viii, 5, 6, 7, occur sophía or phrónesis, dikaiosúne, sophrosúne, ’andreía. The same list appears in the apocryphal IV Mach., v, 22, 23, except that for sophía is put e’usébeia. Philo compares them to the four rivers of Eden.

Doctrine of St. Thomas

St. Thomas (Summa Theol., I-II, Q. lxi, aa. 2 and 4) derives the cardinal virtues both from their formal objects or the perceived kinds of rational good which they generally seek, and from the subjects, or faculties, in which they reside and which they perfect. The latter consideration is the more easily intelligible. In the intellect is prudence; in the will is justice; in the sensitive appetites are temperance restraining pleasure, and fortitude urging on impulses of resistance to fear which would deter a person from strenuous action under difficulties; also checking the excesses of foolhardy audacity, as seen in some who gratuitously courted martyrdom in times of persecution. On the side of the formal object, which in all cases is rational good, we have the four specific variations. The rational good as an object for the action of intellect demands the virtue of prudence; inasmuch as the dictate of prudence is communicated to the will for exertion in relation to other persons, there arises the demand for justice, giving to every man his due. So far the actions are conceived; next come the passions: the concupiscible and the irascible. The order of objective reason as imposed on the appetite for pleasures demands the virtue of temperance; as imposed on the appetite which is repelled by fear-inspiring tasks, it demands fortitude. St. Thomas found four cardinal virtues in common recognition and he tried to give a systematic account of the group as far as it admitted of logical systematization. In so doing he naturally looked to the faculties employed and to the objects about which they were employed. He found it convenient to regard the action of reason, prudence, and the two passions of the sensitive appetite, lust and fear, as internal to the agent; while he regarded the action of the will as concerned with right order in regard to conduct towards others. As one exponent puts it: "Debitum semper est erga alterum: sed actus rationis et passiones interiores sunt: et ideo prudentia quæ perficit rationem, sicut fortitudo et temperantia quæ regulant passiones, dicuntur virtutes ad nos." Thus with three virtues ad intra and one ad extra were established four cardinal virtues, contrary to Plato's scheme, in which all were directly ad intra, referring to the inner harmony of man.

If it be urged against the cardinal virtues being moral, that all moral virtues are in the rational will and only justice among the four cardinal is so seated, St. Thomas replies that prudence is practical, not speculative; and so it has regard to the will, while the two passions, the concupiscible and the irascible, receiving in their own department, at the dictate of reason, the improving qualifications or habits which are the effects of repeated acts, are thereby rendered more docile to the will, obeying it with greater promptness, ease, and constancy. Thus each cardinal virtue has some seat in the will, direct or indirect. At times Aristotle seems to imply what the Pelagians taught later, that the passions may be trained so as never to offer temptation; as a fact, however, he fully allows elsewhere for the abiding peccability of man. Those whose passions are more ordered may in this regard have more perfect virtue; while from another standpoint their merit is less than that of those who are constant in virtue by heroic resistance to perpetual temptations of great strength.

In the above account of the doctrine propounded by St. Thomas, a number of his nice abstractions are left out: for example, he distinguishes prudence as concerned with means to good ends, which it belongs to another virtue to assign: "ad prudentiam pertinet non præstituere finem virtutibus moralibus, sed de his disponere quæ sunt ad finem." He relies on synderesis, or synteresis, for primary, universal principles; on wisdom for knowledge of the Divine; on counsel for judging what prudence is to dictate; on what he calls "the potential parts" of the cardinal virtues for filling up the description of them in various departments under cognate names, such as appear in the relation of modesty, meekness, and humility to temperance.

The theological virtues are so thoroughly supernatural that to treat them as they might appear in the order of nature is not profitable: with the cardinal virtues the case is different. What has been said above about them makes no reference to grace: the remarks are confined to what may belong simply to natural ethics. There is a gain in the restriction, for a natural appreciation of them is exceedingly useful, and many characters suffer from a defective knowledge of natural goodness. St. Thomas introduces the discussion of cardinal virtues also as gifts, but much that he says omits reference to this aspect.

The cardinal virtues unite the intellectual element and the affective. Much has been said recently of heart going beyond intellect in virtue; but the cardinal virtues, while concerned with the appetitive or affective parts, place prudence as the judge over all. Similarly the theological virtues place faith as the foundation of hope and charity. There is thus a completeness about the system which may be asserted without the pretence that essentially these four virtues must be marked off as a quartet among virtues. If the Greeks had not written, perhaps the Church would not have had exactly this fourfold arrangement. Indeed the division of good conduct into separate virtues is not an instance of hard and fast lines. The solidarity of the virtues and their interplay must always be allowed for, while we recognize the utility of specific differentiations. Within limits the cardinal virtues may be said to be a scientifically arranged group, helpful to clearness of aim for a man who is struggling after well-ordered conduct in a disordered world, which is not prudent, just, brave, temperate.


The Seven Deadly Sins: A Convenient Guide .

The medieval period and the early Renaissance period inherited an elaborate Christian model of sin.
The most popular one lists seven sins and subdivides them into three
"spiritual" sins and four "corporal" (bodily) sins. All seven of the sins were deadly evils (i.e.,
potentially a cause of damnation), but the spiritual sins were generally acknowledged as more
dangerous than sins that arose only from the weakness of the body. In reality all are mortal.

The Seven Deadly Sins

Three Spiritual Sins
1. Pride (spiritual sin)
2. Envy (spiritual sin)
3. Wrath (spiritual sin affected by body)

Four Corporal Sins
4. Accidia or Sloth (corporal sin)
5. Avaricia/Cupiditas or Greed
(corporal sin)
6. Gluttony (corporal sin)
7. Lust (corporal sin)

The Seven Holy Virtues

Three Spiritual (or Theological) Virtues
1. Fides (Faith)
2. Spes (Hope)
3. Caritas (Charity) Love.

The Four Cardinal Virtues
4. Prudence
5. Temperance
6. Fortitude
7. Justice

The Seven Virtues oppose the Seven Sins.

Humility cures Pride
Kindness cures Envy
Abstinence cures Gluttony
Chastity cures Lust
Patience cures Wrath
Liberality cures Greed
Diligence cures Sloth

The church assembled a list of seven good works in the catechism as cures to the seven deadly sins: these included sheltering strangers,
feeding the hungry, giving drink to those thirsting, clothing the naked, visiting the sick, ministering to the imprisoned, and burying the dead. 

 
VIRTUE: From The Catechism of the Catholic Church.

1803 "Whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is gracious, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things."62

A virtue is an habitual and firm disposition to do the good. It allows the person not only to perform good acts, but to give the best of himself. The virtuous person tends toward the good with all his sensory and spiritual powers; he pursues the good and chooses it in concrete actions.


The goal of a virtuous life is to become like God.63

I. THE HUMAN VIRTUES

1804 Human virtues are firm attitudes, stable dispositions, habitual perfections of intellect and will that govern our actions, order our passions, and guide our conduct according to reason and faith. They make possible ease, self-mastery, and joy in leading a morally good life. The virtuous man is he who freely practices the good.

The moral virtues are acquired by human effort. They are the fruit and seed of morally good acts; they dispose all the powers of the human being for communion with divine love.

The cardinal virtues

1805 Four virtues play a pivotal role and accordingly are called "cardinal"; all the others are grouped around them. They are: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. "If anyone loves righteousness, [Wisdom's] labors are virtues; for she teaches temperance and prudence, justice, and courage."64 These virtues are praised under other names in many passages of Scripture.

1806 Prudence is the virtue that disposes practical reason to discern our true good in every circumstance and to choose the right means of achieving it; "the prudent man looks where he is going."65 "Keep sane and sober for your prayers."66 Prudence is "right reason in action," writes St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle.67 It is not to be confused with timidity or fear, nor with duplicity or dissimulation. It is called auriga virtutum (the charioteer of the virtues); it guides the other virtues by setting rule and measure. It is prudence that immediately guides the judgment of conscience. The prudent man determines and directs his conduct in accordance with this judgment. With the help of this virtue we apply moral principles to particular cases without error and overcome doubts about the good to achieve and the evil to avoid.

1807 Justice is the moral virtue that consists in the constant and firm will to give their due to God and neighbor. Justice toward God is called the "virtue of religion." Justice toward men disposes one to respect the rights of each and to establish in human relationships the harmony that promotes equity with regard to persons and to the common good. The just man, often mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures, is distinguished by habitual right thinking and the uprightness of his conduct toward his neighbor. "You shall not be partial to the poor or defer to the great, but in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor."68 "Masters, treat your slaves justly and fairly, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven."69

1808 Fortitude is the moral virtue that ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the pursuit of the good. It strengthens the resolve to resist temptations and to overcome obstacles in the moral life. The virtue of fortitude enables one to conquer fear, even fear of death, and to face trials and persecutions. It disposes one even to renounce and sacrifice his life in defense of a just cause. "The Lord is my strength and my song."70 "In the world you have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world."71

1809 Temperance is the moral virtue that moderates the attraction of pleasures and provides balance in the use of created goods. It ensures the will's mastery over instincts and keeps desires within the limits of what is honorable. The temperate person directs the sensitive appetites toward what is good and maintains a healthy discretion: "Do not follow your inclination and strength, walking according to the desires of your heart."72 Temperance is often praised in the Old Testament: "Do not follow your base desires, but restrain your appetites."73 In the New Testament it is called "moderation" or "sobriety." We ought "to live sober, upright, and godly lives in this world."74


To live well is nothing other than to love God with all one's heart, with all one's soul and with all one's efforts; from this it comes about that love is kept whole and uncorrupted (through temperance). No misfortune can disturb it (and this is fortitude). It obeys only [God] (and this is justice), and is careful in discerning things, so as not to be surprised by deceit or trickery (and this is prudence).75
The virtues and grace

1810 Human virtues acquired by education, by deliberate acts and by a perseverance ever-renewed in repeated efforts are purified and elevated by divine grace. With God's help, they forge character and give facility in the practice of the good. The virtuous man is happy to practice them.

1811 It is not easy for man, wounded by sin, to maintain moral balance. Christ's gift of salvation offers us the grace necessary to persevere in the pursuit of the virtues. Everyone should always ask for this grace of light and strength, frequent the sacraments, cooperate with the Holy Spirit, and follow his calls to love what is good and shun evil.

II. THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES

1812 The human virtues are rooted in the theological virtues, which adapt man's faculties for participation in the divine nature:76 for the theological virtues relate directly to God. They dispose Christians to live in a relationship with the Holy Trinity. They have the One and Triune God for their origin, motive, and object.

1813 The theological virtues are the foundation of Christian moral activity; they animate it and give it its special character. They inform and give life to all the moral virtues. They are infused by God into the souls of the faithful to make them capable of acting as his children and of meriting eternal life. They are the pledge of the presence and action of the Holy Spirit in the faculties of the human being. There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity.77

* Faith

1814 Faith is the theological virtue by which we believe in God and believe all that he has said and revealed to us, and that Holy Church proposes for our belief, because he is truth itself. By faith "man freely commits his entire self to God."78 For this reason the believer seeks to know and do God's will. "The righteous shall live by faith." Living faith "work[s] through charity."79

1815 The gift of faith remains in one who has not sinned against it.80 But "faith apart from works is dead":81 when it is deprived of hope and love, faith does not fully unite the believer to Christ and does not make him a living member of his Body.

1816 The disciple of Christ must not only keep the faith and live on it, but also profess it, confidently bear witness to it, and spread it: "All however must be prepared to confess Christ before men and to follow him along the way of the Cross, amidst the persecutions which the Church never lacks."82 Service of and witness to the faith are necessary for salvation: "So every one who acknowledges me before men, I also will acknowledge before my Father who is in heaven; but whoever denies me before men, I also will deny before my Father who is in heaven."83

Hope

1817 Hope is the theological virtue by which we desire the kingdom of heaven and eternal life as our happiness, placing our trust in Christ's promises and relying not on our own strength, but on the help of the grace of the Holy Spirit. "Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who promised is faithful."84 "The Holy Spirit . . . he poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that we might be justified by his grace and become heirs in hope of eternal life."85

1818 The virtue of hope responds to the aspiration to happiness which God has placed in the heart of every man; it takes up the hopes that inspire men's activities and purifies them so as to order them to the Kingdom of heaven; it keeps man from discouragement; it sustains him during times of abandonment; it opens up his heart in expectation of eternal beatitude. Buoyed up by hope, he is preserved from selfishness and led to the happiness that flows from charity.

1819 Christian hope takes up and fulfills the hope of the chosen people which has its origin and model in the hope of Abraham, who was blessed abundantly by the promises of God fulfilled in Isaac, and who was purified by the test of the sacrifice.86 "Hoping against hope, he believed, and thus became the father of many nations."87

1820 Christian hope unfolds from the beginning of Jesus' preaching in the proclamation of the beatitudes. The beatitudes raise our hope toward heaven as the new Promised Land; they trace the path that leads through the trials that await the disciples of Jesus. But through the merits of Jesus Christ and of his Passion, God keeps us in the "hope that does not disappoint."88 Hope is the "sure and steadfast anchor of the soul . . . that enters . . . where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf."89 Hope is also a weapon that protects us in the struggle of salvation: "Let us . . . put on the breastplate of faith and charity, and for a helmet the hope of salvation."90 It affords us joy even under trial: "Rejoice in your hope, be patient in tribulation."91 Hope is expressed and nourished in prayer, especially in the Our Father, the summary of everything that hope leads us to desire.

1821 We can therefore hope in the glory of heaven promised by God to those who love him and do his will.92 In every circumstance, each one of us should hope, with the grace of God, to persevere "to the end"93 and to obtain the joy of heaven, as God's eternal reward for the good works accomplished with the grace of Christ. In hope, the Church prays for "all men to be saved."94 She longs to be united with Christ, her Bridegroom, in the glory of heaven:


Hope, O my soul, hope. You know neither the day nor the hour. Watch carefully, for everything passes quickly, even though your impatience makes doubtful what is certain, and turns a very short time into a long one. Dream that the more you struggle, the more you prove the love that you bear your God, and the more you will rejoice one day with your Beloved, in a happiness and rapture that can never end.95
Charity

1822 Love (Charity) is the theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.

1823 Jesus makes charity the new commandment.96 By loving his own "to the end,"97 he makes manifest the Father's love which he receives. By loving one another, the disciples imitate the love of Jesus which they themselves receive. Whence Jesus says: "As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you; abide in my love." And again: "This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you."98

1824 Fruit of the Spirit and fullness of the Law, charity keeps the commandments of God and his Christ: "Abide in my love. If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love."99

1825 Christ died out of love for us, while we were still "enemies."100 The Lord asks us to love as he does, even our enemies, to make ourselves the neighbor of those farthest away, and to love children and the poor as Christ himself.101


The Apostle Paul has given an incomparable depiction of charity: "charity is patient and kind, charity is not jealous or boastful; it is not arrogant or rude. Charity does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice at wrong, but rejoices in the right. Charity bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things."102
1826 "If I . . . have not charity," says the Apostle, "I am nothing." Whatever my privilege, service, or even virtue, "if I . . . have not charity, I gain nothing."103 Charity is superior to all the virtues. It is the first of the theological virtues: "So faith, hope, charity abide, these three. But the greatest of these is charity."104

1827 The practice of all the virtues is animated and inspired by charity, which "binds everything together in perfect harmony";105 it is the form of the virtues; it articulates and orders them among themselves; it is the source and the goal of their Christian practice. Charity upholds and purifies our human ability to love, and raises it to the supernatural perfection of divine love.

1828 The practice of the moral life animated by charity gives to the Christian the spiritual freedom of the children of God. He no longer stands before God as a slave, in servile fear, or as a mercenary looking for wages, but as a son responding to the love of him who "first loved us":106


If we turn away from evil out of fear of punishment, we are in the position of slaves. If we pursue the enticement of wages, . . . we resemble mercenaries. Finally if we obey for the sake of the good itself and out of love for him who commands . . . we are in the position of children.107
1829 The fruits of charity are joy, peace, and mercy; charity demands beneficence and fraternal correction; it is benevolence; it fosters reciprocity and remains disinterested and generous; it is friendship and communion: Love is itself the fulfillment of all our works. There is the goal; that is why we run: we run toward it, and once we reach it, in it we shall find rest.108

III. THE GIFTS AND FRUITS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

1830 The moral life of Christians is sustained by the gifts of the Holy Spirit. These are permanent dispositions which make man docile in following the promptings of the Holy Spirit.

1831 The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord. They belong in their fullness to Christ, Son of David.109 They complete and perfect the virtues of those who receive them. They make the faithful docile in readily obeying divine inspirations.


Let your good spirit lead me on a level path.110
For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God . . . If children, then heirs, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ.111

1832 The fruits of the Spirit are perfections that the Holy Spirit forms in us as the first fruits of eternal glory. The tradition of the Church lists twelve of them: "charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness, modesty, self-control, chastity."112

IN BRIEF

1833 Virtue is a habitual and firm disposition to do good.

1834 The human virtues are stable dispositions of the intellect and the will that govern our acts, order our passions, and guide our conduct in accordance with reason and faith. They can be grouped around the four cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.

1835 Prudence disposes the practical reason to discern, in every circumstance, our true good and to choose the right means for achieving it.

1836 Justice consists in the firm and constant will to give God and neighbor their due.

1837 Fortitude ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the pursuit of the good.

1838 Temperance moderates the attraction of the pleasures of the senses and provides balance in the use of created goods.

1839 The moral virtues grow through education, deliberate acts, and perseverance in struggle. Divine grace purifies and elevates them.

1840 The theological virtues dispose Christians to live in a relationship with the Holy Trinity. They have God for their origin, their motive, and their object - God known by faith, God hoped in and loved for his own sake.

1841 There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. They inform all the moral virtues and give life to them.

1842 By faith, we believe in God and believe all that he has revealed to us and that Holy Church proposes for our belief.

1843 By hope we desire, and with steadfast trust await from God, eternal life and the graces to merit it.

1844 By charity, we love God above all things and our neighbor as ourselves for love of God. Charity, the form of all the virtues, "binds everything together in perfect harmony" (Col 3:14).

1845 The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit bestowed upon Christians are wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord.

Prayers for Virtue:

Prayer of St. Thomas Aquinas for Virtue

Grant that I may not fail or swerve either in prosperity or adversity; that I be not lifted up
by the one, and cast down by the other. Let me thank Thee in prosperity, and preserve
my patience in adversity. Let me joy in nothing but what leads to Thee, nor grieve for anything but what leads
away from Thee; let me neither seek to please, nor fear to displease any but Thee
alone. May all transitory things grow vile in my eyes, O God, and may all that is Thine
be dear to me for Thy sake, and Thou, O my God, are above them all.

May all joy be irksome to me that is without Thee, nor may I desire anything that is
apart from Thee. May all labour and toil delight me, which is for Thee, and all rest be
weariness, which is not in Thee. Grant me, O God, continually to lift up my heart
towards Thee, and to bring sorrowfully to my mind my many shortcomings, with full
purpose of amendment.

Make me, O God, obedient without demur, poor without repining, chaste without stain,
patient without murmur, humble without pretence, joyous without frivolity, fearful without
abjectness, truthful without disguise, given to good works without presumption, faithful
to rebuke my neighbor without arrogance, and ever ready to edify him by word and
example without pretension. Give me, O God, an ever watchful heart, which no subtle
speculation may lure fromThee. Give me a noble heart, which no unworthy affection can
draw downwards to the earth. Give me an upright heart, which no insincere intention can warp.
Give me a firm heart, which no tribulation can crush or quell. Give me a free heart, which no perverted
or impetuous affection can claim for its own.
Amen

Prayer for Holiness

Breathe in me, O Holy Spirit,
that my thoughts may all be holy.
Act in me, O Holy Spirit,
that my work, too, may be holy.
Draw my heart, O Holy Spirit,
that I love only what is holy. Strengthen me,
O Holy Spirit, to defend all that is holy.
Guard me so, O Holy Spirit,
that I may always be holy. Amen

Prayer for the Virtue of Faith

Jesus, Your faith was in the Heavenly Father, Your steadfastness being my living
model! Kindly grant me the richness of such faith, To embrace Your Father as my true
Provider, having staunch belief in His eminent powers and to remain loyal to Him until
my last day. If my faith shifts as temporary waves, rush to my rescue without any
hesitation, protecting others from my fleeting frailty. May Your presence always be lively
enjoyed, enabling me to shine as a flame of faith. my faith loyally reaches out to You!
Amen.

Act of Hope
O my God, relying on your infinite goodness and promises, I hope to obtain pardon of
my sins, the help of your grace, and life everlasting, through the merits of Jesus Christ,
my Lord and Redeemer. Amen.

Prayer for God’s Guidance

Father in Heaven,
You made me Your child and called me to walk in the Light of Christ.
Free me from darknessand keep me in the Light of Your Truth.
The Light of Jesus has scattered the darkness of hatred and sin.
Called to that Light, I ask for Your guidance.
Form my life in Your Truth, my heart in Your Love.
Through the Holy Eucharist, give me the power of Your Grace
that I may walk in the Light of Jesus and serve Him faithfully.
Amen.

Act of Faith

O my God, I firmly believe that Thou art one God in Three Divine Persons, Father, Son
and Holy Ghost. I believe that Thy Divine Son became Man, and died for our sins, and
that He will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths
which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, Who can
neither deceive nor be deceived.

Act of Love

O my God, I love you above all things, with my whole heart and soul, because you are
all good and worthy of all my love. I love my neighbor as myself for the love of you. I
forgive all who have injured me and I ask pardon of all whom I have injured. Amen.
Prayer to Love God Above All Things
God, my Father, may I love You in all things and above all things. May I reach the joy
which you have prepared for me in Heaven. Nothing is good that is against Your Will,
and all that is good comes from Your Hand. Place in my heart a desire to please You
and fill my mind with thoughts of Your Love, so that I may grow in Your Wisdom and
enjoy Your Peace. Amen.

St. Teresa of Avila Prayer (St. Alphonsus Marie de Liguori)

O Saint Teresa, seraphic Virgin, beloved spouse of thy crucified Lord, thou who on
earth didst burn with a love so intense toward thy God and my god, and now doest
glow with a brighter and purer flame in paradise: obtain for me also, I beseech thee, a
spark of that same holy fire which shall cause me to forget the world, all things created
and even myself; for thou didst ever avidly desire to see Him loved by all men. Grant
that my every thought and desire and affection may be continually directed to doing the
will of God, the Supreme Good, whether I am in joy or in pain, for He is worthy to be
loved and obeyed forever. Obtain for me this grace, thou who art so powerful with God;
may I be all on fire, like thee, with the holy love of God. Amen.

Youth’s Prayer for Fortitude

O Holy Spirit who descended upon the twelve as they stood in anxiety, come unto me
in my youthful endeavors. Banish from my heart all timidity and false pride; strengthen
my soul to avoid all sin, to practice virtue, and to prefer ridicule to the denial of my Lord
and Saviour Jesus Christ. Let not the goodness of purity, obedience and charity be
obscured in the face of adversity. Instill in me the virtue of Fortitude so that I may
courageously profess and practice my holy Catholic faith. Open my eyes, O Holy Spirit,
that I may recognize my state in life. Give me the confidence to embrace it and strength
to live it as a son of God. I pray that Your guidance, protection and consolation may be
with me now and throughout my life. Amen.

Prayer for Fortitude

Dear Jesus, lay your Wounded Hand upon my weary head,
And teach me to have courage in the paths that I must tread.
Bless me, and bless those whom I love, and give us grace to see
These crosses bravely borne by us will keep us close to thee.
And if at times a shadow falls in unexpected ways,
Put your gentle hand in mine and guide me through the days.
So bless my people, one and all, with Thy protecting grace,
And impart to them Thy wisdom ere they meet Thee face to face. Amen.

Prayer for the Virtue of Temperance

Lord Jesus Christ, I have the tendency to over-do almost anything. When I am involved
in something I plunge into it so that I am oblivious of everything else. Give me a spirit of
temperance to maintain my balance in all things – whether it be sleeping, thinking, or
working, playing, visiting, or partying. Let me realize that whatever I do, I should do for
you – and I should do it in moderation. Amen.

Prayer to St. Dymphna for Prudence

You were marked in life, St. Dymphna, by a high degree of prudence. You sought and
followed the advice of your confessor and spiritual guide. You fled from temptation
even when it meant exile and poverty. In your last extremity you chose to die rather
than offend God. Please help us now by your merits not only to know what is right, but
procure for us also the strength to do it. Amen.

Prayer for the Virtue of Justice

Lord, inspire me to give of my best and make use of the talents you have given me. Show me how to be positive in attitude,
appreciating and valuing others, Always being ready to encourage and give praise.
sometimes I draw conclusions about people In terms of what I think is meant by “success” and “failure,”
but the “failure” of one person might count as a great “success” of someone with other talents.
Lead me never to judge people but to accept others as they are, knowing that it is together, each with our own differences,
that we build up Your Kingdom. Amen.

       

Reference:

62 Phil 4:8.
63 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus, 1:PG 44,1200D.
64 Wis 8:7.
65 Prov 14:15.
66 1 Pet 4:7.
67 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,47,2.
68 Lev 19:15.
69 Col 4:1.
70 Ps 118:14.
71 Jn 16:33.
72 Sir 5:2; cf. 37:27-31.
73 Sir 18:30.
74 Titus 2:12.
75 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1,25,46:PL 32,1330-1331.
76 Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
77 Cf. 1 Cor 13:13.
78 DV 5.
79 Rom 1:17; Gal 5:6.
80 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545.
81 Jas 2:26.
82 LG 42; cf. DH 14.
83 Mt 10:32-33.
84 Heb 10:23.
85 Titus 3:6-7.
86 Cf. Gen 17:4-8; 22:1-18.
87 Rom 4:18.
88 Rom 5:5.
89 Heb 6:19-20.
90 1 Thess 5:8.
91 Rom 12:12.
92 Cf. Rom 8:28-30; Mt 7:21.
93 Mt 10:22; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1541.
94 1 Tim 2:4.
95 St. Teresa of Avila, Excl. 15:3.
96 Cf. Jn 13:34.
97 Jn 13:1.
98 Jn 15:9,12.
99 Jn 15:9-10; cf. Mt 22:40; Rom 13:8-10.
100 Rom 5:10.
101 Cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 10:27-37; Mk 9:37; Mt 25:40, 45.
102 1 Cor 13:4-7.
103 1 Cor 13:1-4.
104 1 Cor 13:13.
105 Col 3:14.
106 Cf. 1 Jn 4:19.
107 St. Basil, Reg. fus. tract., prol. 3:PG 31,896B.
108 St. Augustine, In ep. Jo. 10,4:PL 35,2057.
109 Cf. Isa 11:1-2.
110 Ps 143:10.
111 Rom 8:14,17.
112 Gal 5:22-23 (Vulg.).

Reference:

62 Phil 4:8.
63 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus, 1:PG 44,1200D.
64 Wis 8:7.
65 Prov 14:15.
66 1 Pet 4:7.
67 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,47,2.
68 Lev 19:15.
69 Col 4:1.
70 Ps 118:14.
71 Jn 16:33.
72 Sir 5:2; cf. 37:27-31.
73 Sir 18:30.
74 Titus 2:12.
75 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1,25,46:PL 32,1330-1331.
76 Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
77 Cf. 1 Cor 13:13.
78 DV 5.
79 Rom 1:17; Gal 5:6.
80 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545.
81 Jas 2:26.
82 LG 42; cf. DH 14.
83 Mt 10:32-33.
84 Heb 10:23.
85 Titus 3:6-7.
86 Cf. Gen 17:4-8; 22:1-18.
87 Rom 4:18.
88 Rom 5:5.
89 Heb 6:19-20.
90 1 Thess 5:8.
91 Rom 12:12.
92 Cf. Rom 8:28-30; Mt 7:21.
93 Mt 10:22; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1541.
94 1 Tim 2:4.
95 St. Teresa of Avila, Excl. 15:3.
96 Cf. Jn 13:34.
97 Jn 13:1.
98 Jn 15:9,12.
99 Jn 15:9-10; cf. Mt 22:40; Rom 13:8-10.
100 Rom 5:10.
101 Cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 10:27-37; Mk 9:37; Mt 25:40, 45.
102 1 Cor 13:4-7.
103 1 Cor 13:1-4.
104 1 Cor 13:13.
105 Col 3:14.
106 Cf. 1 Jn 4:19.
107 St. Basil, Reg. fus. tract., prol. 3:PG 31,896B.
108 St. Augustine, In ep. Jo. 10,4:PL 35,2057.
109 Cf. Isa 11:1-2.
110 Ps 143:10.
111 Rom 8:14,17.
112 Gal 5:22-23 (Vulg.).

Reference:

62 Phil 4:8.
63 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus, 1:PG 44,1200D.
64 Wis 8:7.
65 Prov 14:15.
66 1 Pet 4:7.
67 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,47,2.
68 Lev 19:15.
69 Col 4:1.
70 Ps 118:14.
71 Jn 16:33.
72 Sir 5:2; cf. 37:27-31.
73 Sir 18:30.
74 Titus 2:12.
75 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1,25,46:PL 32,1330-1331.
76 Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
77 Cf. 1 Cor 13:13.
78 DV 5.
79 Rom 1:17; Gal 5:6.
80 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545.
81 Jas 2:26.
82 LG 42; cf. DH 14.
83 Mt 10:32-33.
84 Heb 10:23.
85 Titus 3:6-7.
86 Cf. Gen 17:4-8; 22:1-18.
87 Rom 4:18.
88 Rom 5:5.
89 Heb 6:19-20.
90 1 Thess 5:8.
91 Rom 12:12.
92 Cf. Rom 8:28-30; Mt 7:21.
93 Mt 10:22; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1541.
94 1 Tim 2:4.
95 St. Teresa of Avila, Excl. 15:3.
96 Cf. Jn 13:34.
97 Jn 13:1.
98 Jn 15:9,12.
99 Jn 15:9-10; cf. Mt 22:40; Rom 13:8-10.
100 Rom 5:10.
101 Cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 10:27-37; Mk 9:37; Mt 25:40, 45.
102 1 Cor 13:4-7.
103 1 Cor 13:1-4.
104 1 Cor 13:13.
105 Col 3:14.
106 Cf. 1 Jn 4:19.
107 St. Basil, Reg. fus. tract., prol. 3:PG 31,896B.
108 St. Augustine, In ep. Jo. 10,4:PL 35,2057.
109 Cf. Isa 11:1-2.
110 Ps 143:10.
111 Rom 8:14,17.
112 Gal 5:22-23 (Vulg.).

Reference:

62 Phil 4:8.
63 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus, 1:PG 44,1200D.
64 Wis 8:7.
65 Prov 14:15.
66 1 Pet 4:7.
67 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,47,2.
68 Lev 19:15.
69 Col 4:1.
70 Ps 118:14.
71 Jn 16:33.
72 Sir 5:2; cf. 37:27-31.
73 Sir 18:30.
74 Titus 2:12.
75 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1,25,46:PL 32,1330-1331.
76 Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
77 Cf. 1 Cor 13:13.
78 DV 5.
79 Rom 1:17; Gal 5:6.
80 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545.
81 Jas 2:26.
82 LG 42; cf. DH 14.
83 Mt 10:32-33.
84 Heb 10:23.
85 Titus 3:6-7.
86 Cf. Gen 17:4-8; 22:1-18.
87 Rom 4:18.
88 Rom 5:5.
89 Heb 6:19-20.
90 1 Thess 5:8.
91 Rom 12:12.
92 Cf. Rom 8:28-30; Mt 7:21.
93 Mt 10:22; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1541.
94 1 Tim 2:4.
95 St. Teresa of Avila, Excl. 15:3.
96 Cf. Jn 13:34.
97 Jn 13:1.
98 Jn 15:9,12.
99 Jn 15:9-10; cf. Mt 22:40; Rom 13:8-10.
100 Rom 5:10.
101 Cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 10:27-37; Mk 9:37; Mt 25:40, 45.
102 1 Cor 13:4-7.
103 1 Cor 13:1-4.
104 1 Cor 13:13.
105 Col 3:14.
106 Cf. 1 Jn 4:19.
107 St. Basil, Reg. fus. tract., prol. 3:PG 31,896B.
108 St. Augustine, In ep. Jo. 10,4:PL 35,2057.
109 Cf. Isa 11:1-2.
110 Ps 143:10.
111 Rom 8:14,17.
112 Gal 5:22-23 (Vulg.).

Reference:

62 Phil 4:8.
63 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus, 1:PG 44,1200D.
64 Wis 8:7.
65 Prov 14:15.
66 1 Pet 4:7.
67 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,47,2.
68 Lev 19:15.
69 Col 4:1.
70 Ps 118:14.
71 Jn 16:33.
72 Sir 5:2; cf. 37:27-31.
73 Sir 18:30.
74 Titus 2:12.
75 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1,25,46:PL 32,1330-1331.
76 Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
77 Cf. 1 Cor 13:13.
78 DV 5.
79 Rom 1:17; Gal 5:6.
80 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545.
81 Jas 2:26.
82 LG 42; cf. DH 14.
83 Mt 10:32-33.
84 Heb 10:23.
85 Titus 3:6-7.
86 Cf. Gen 17:4-8; 22:1-18.
87 Rom 4:18.
88 Rom 5:5.
89 Heb 6:19-20.
90 1 Thess 5:8.
91 Rom 12:12.
92 Cf. Rom 8:28-30; Mt 7:21.
93 Mt 10:22; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1541.
94 1 Tim 2:4.
95 St. Teresa of Avila, Excl. 15:3.
96 Cf. Jn 13:34.
97 Jn 13:1.
98 Jn 15:9,12.
99 Jn 15:9-10; cf. Mt 22:40; Rom 13:8-10.
100 Rom 5:10.
101 Cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 10:27-37; Mk 9:37; Mt 25:40, 45.
102 1 Cor 13:4-7.
103 1 Cor 13:1-4.
104 1 Cor 13:13.
105 Col 3:14.
106 Cf. 1 Jn 4:19.
107 St. Basil, Reg. fus. tract., prol. 3:PG 31,896B.
108 St. Augustine, In ep. Jo. 10,4:PL 35,2057.
109 Cf. Isa 11:1-2.
110 Ps 143:10.
111 Rom 8:14,17.
112 Gal 5:22-23 (Vulg.).

Reference:

62 Phil 4:8.
63 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De beatitudinibus, 1:PG 44,1200D.
64 Wis 8:7.
65 Prov 14:15.
66 1 Pet 4:7.
67 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,47,2.
68 Lev 19:15.
69 Col 4:1.
70 Ps 118:14.
71 Jn 16:33.
72 Sir 5:2; cf. 37:27-31.
73 Sir 18:30.
74 Titus 2:12.
75 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1,25,46:PL 32,1330-1331.
76 Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
77 Cf. 1 Cor 13:13.
78 DV 5.
79 Rom 1:17; Gal 5:6.
80 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545.
81 Jas 2:26.
82 LG 42; cf. DH 14.
83 Mt 10:32-33.
84 Heb 10:23.
85 Titus 3:6-7.
86 Cf. Gen 17:4-8; 22:1-18.
87 Rom 4:18.
88 Rom 5:5.
89 Heb 6:19-20.
90 1 Thess 5:8.
91 Rom 12:12.
92 Cf. Rom 8:28-30; Mt 7:21.
93 Mt 10:22; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1541.
94 1 Tim 2:4.
95 St. Teresa of Avila, Excl. 15:3.
96 Cf. Jn 13:34.
97 Jn 13:1.
98 Jn 15:9,12.
99 Jn 15:9-10; cf. Mt 22:40; Rom 13:8-10.
100 Rom 5:10.
101 Cf. Mt 5:44; Lk 10:27-37; Mk 9:37; Mt 25:40, 45.
102 1 Cor 13:4-7.
103 1 Cor 13:1-4.
104 1 Cor 13:13.
105 Col 3:14.
106 Cf. 1 Jn 4:19.
107 St. Basil, Reg. fus. tract., prol. 3:PG 31,896B.
108 St. Augustine, In ep. Jo. 10,4:PL 35,2057.
109 Cf. Isa 11:1-2.
110 Ps 143:10.
111 Rom 8:14,17.
112 Gal 5:22-23 (Vulg.).

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